The Water Project Ethiopia is truly a land of contrasts and extremes; a land of remote and wild places and a land of culture and beauty. The Karayu are a marginalised tribal group with a population of 35 000. Living in a remote and arid desert of Ethiopia they are traditional pastoralists and depend on the land and animals for their livelihood. This nomadic tradition puts them among the most underprivileged people groups in Ethiopia. Farming is their main source of income. Family’s have on average between 3-5 varieties of animals including goats, cows, sheep, camels, and donkeys. Over twenty years ago a government sponsored sugar factory was established in the heartland of their grazing land. This resulted in the Karayu being denied access to the Awash River, their main source of water. The sugar factory has tight Security, with guards and undercover spies patrolling the borders of the plantation. The only water now available to the karayu comes from bores. Unfortunately the fluoride level in the bore water is 12.7mg/litre. (1.5 mg/litre is what the Australian government deems acceptable) The displacement of the Karayu from their grazing land has also led to armed conflict with their neighbouring tribes. Tribes fight to control the borders of their territory. The search for water and pasture drives the tribes to the perimeters of their own land, and closer to the borders of their neighbour. Unfortunately the villages are unable to move closer to the waterholes due to traditional land ownership. The land closer to the water holes is also unusable in the wet season as it turns to swamp land. As their grazing land is not available, the Karayu now have to walk long distances to find feed for their animals. They can walk for up to nine hours a day and this journey which is made every day by women and children.